21 November, 2009

The unsinkable Lucky Dog

The original Newport 16 floatation consisted of 3 Styrofoam blocks under the cockpit and a sealed air chamber under the v-berth. Unfortunately I highly doubt the boat’s survivability in an actual boat sinking situation. To make things worse when I bought my boat the berth liner had split from the hull. I could hear the water that was leaking from the keel trunk sloshing under the berth.

I have a zero tolerance for any water in the boat. Constant bilge water causes several problems. The water eventually penetrates the fiberglass, dissolves some of the compounds and weakens the material. Constant water increases the humidity promoting mold growth. The acceptance of water in the bilge reduces the investigation time in an actual emergency. What is sad is that the Newport 16 was designed to leak water into the hull. Why does it have a hull drain plug? With today’s materials and some design forethought there is no excuse to have any water in the boat. On a boat this size you have no room for a liferaft. Your boat is the lifeboat and it has to stay afloat no matter what happens. You have a better chance of rescue sitting in a boat filled to the gunnels than treading water in a lifejacket.

Basic Design Requirements:

1) Any unusable areas should be filled with floatation foam. The boat needs to be a cork on the ocean. There are a lot of arguments about what type of foam to use. My foam will be dry 99.99% of the time. Household spray foam that has some absorption over long periods will displace the water long enough for a rescue. The original Styrofoam blocks were cut to fit in tight and gaps were filled with spray foam.

2) Improve storage. The original V-Berth air tanks are a lot of lost space. Any hull damage cannot be inspected from the inside.

3) Compartmentalize to reduce flooding volume. All modern ships are divided into compartments to control flooding. Several of these compartments can flood and the ship stays afloat.

In my future blogs I will explain how I achieved a dry boat and at the same time improved storage.

12 November, 2009

Home made Hiking Stick

The Newport 16 tends to sail better with the weight shifted forward. I usually like to sit at or forward of the keel winch.  To do this the tiller requires a hiking stick. A hiking stick has many other advantages. I can sit further outboard to see around the foresail or balance the boat. Motoring through a crowded anchorage or going up a narrow creek I can stand up for better visibility.

The Stick is made from things that I already had around my garage. Last year Dick’s Sporting Goods had a 2 piece 10 foot, Graphite Fishing Pole for under $10. This is not a Fishing Rod with Guides. It is a pole you tie a line to the end of to go bank fishing. I have used this pole for several projects because it is flexible and strong. The Hiking Stick is made out of a piece of the top part. The ball at the tip is a wooden drawer knob. To make the pivot joint I took epoxy soaked glass cloth fibers and started to wrap them around the end of the pole. The inside of the end is filled with some epoxy filler. After the fiberglass lump cured I used a grinder to shape the end into a square and slit the middle for the Pivot Pin. The Pivot Pin is an old 316 stainless pin I had that had a lanyard eye. The whole thing is coated with epoxy resin, wet sanded and topped with a coat of black spray paint. To mount the Hiking Stick on the Tiller I drilled an oversized hole and epoxied a short piece of metal tubing into the tiller stock. This was done to provide a smooth bearing for the pin and keep the tiller wood from splitting. There is a washer on each side of the tiller. The pin was cut to length, threaded and installed using a lock nut on the bottom. Nut was tightened just enough to allow free movement.

To stow the Hiking Stick on the tiller I had two sollutions. At first I just used a rubber band, quick, cheap and effective. For the finished look I mounted a metal bungee hook half way up the stick. The hook was adjusted with a pair of needle nose pliers to allow the stick to tuck under without scratching the finish.

The tiller was splitting where it attaches to the rudder head. To repair it I filled the crack and old holes with epoxy. Then I wrapped glass gibers around the bottom section. The fiberglass was sanded and coated with some black spray paint. The whole tiller was epoxy coated and varnished. Currently it is the nicest piece of wood on “Lucky Dog”…

10 November, 2009

Building the better rudder

The original rudder built by Award Boats is not very hydrodynamic or well balanced. The basic shape is a plain flat board. At higher speeds the blade tends to flutter.  The further the blade is from the pivot axis, the higher is the load on the tiller. The newer Gloucester rudders are built parallel to the axis reducing the tiller loads.

The wooden rudder blade needs to be locked to keep it from kicking up. This required me to lean over the stern to loosen the screw. In the Chesapeake I sail through very shallow waters. I was always worried about breaking the rudder. Going back was inconvenient and unsafe.

At first I wanted to build a whole new foil shaped blade, with a balance section forward of the axis. The amount of time to do this and also the shape of the rudder head made this impractical.

I decided to modify the existing blade by moving the center of the blade closer to the axis. I plained the edges square and added a strip of mahogany to the leading edge using  biscuits and epoxy. With a belt sander I rounded the corners and shaped the profile.

I drew parallel lines with a marker on each side of the blade as a guide. A rudder foil shape has its widest section about a third from the leading edge. The front nose is rounded. The rear two-thirds is a straight taper. Using a plane and a belt sander I removed material evenly on both sides until a foil shape was achieved. This was more of a art than science. Once I had the shape I covered the blade with a layer of fiberglass cloth and faired using epoxy micro balloons. To assist in lifting, give the rudder some transverse strength and have a emergency step, I epoxied a cross brace. Made from a single strip of wood I cut out the middle and slipped it on to the rudder.

The blade lifting mechanism is a set of pulleys on each side of the blade. One side for lift and other for the lowering. The rollers came out of a old dishwasher that I just took out of my kitchen. The rope is a single loop to a cleat on the tiller.

I usually keep some pressure on the rudder lock screw. If I hit shallow water I can quickly raise and lower the blade without going aft. For more open water I tighten the screw. One nice benefit is that the new line acts like a carrying handle when removing and storing the rudder.

06 November, 2009

Sailing on the Eastern Shore

One of my favorite sailing areas around Virginia are the barrier islands of the Eastern Shore. It has been several years since I have been there. So when my wife proposed to go shelling on the Eastern Shore I jumped on the opportunity. The access to the barrier islands is limited. Many have certain seasonal restrictions and are owned by the Nature Conservancy or are state or federal refuges. A great place to launch from is the public ramp in Oyster. Oyster is only 13 miles from the Chesapeake Bay Bridge Tunnel. The town has changed little in the 10 years that I have been going there. Some of the fishing boats are gone, replaced by few sailboats. UVA has a marine research station there.
Leaving Oyster you wind past oyster beds and cross the Intracoastal Waterway at the 231 mile marker. From there it is almost a due East course down the Sand Shoal Channel. When in the channel look back and see where you came from. The low topography begins to look all the same once you get out a few miles. A large white house and a cell tower are good references. After G “9” marker the marsh grass is replaced by what looks like a large bay. Stay in the channel !!! The flats are very shallow. I have crossed them, but only at high tide. Cobb Island is very low. You will not see it until you are almost there. A lot has changed on these islands in the past few years. The south point of Cobb has extended and Wreck island has moved south. The chart is not up to date. The old Coast Guard station will be visible.
Getting to the Coast Guard station can be tricky. You have two OPTIONS.

1) Sail behind Little Cobb Island: The deep draft (+4’) pass is not very clear and is partially blocked at the north end by some small islands. Hug close to the island.

2) Sail in front of Little Cobb Island: This area changes a lot due to the ocean waves that roll into the inlet. Cut too close to little Cobb and you will run aground. Go too far out in the channel and you will be stuck on the wrong side of the breaking waves that extend south of Cobb.

On our day the wind was blowing from SSE. The waves were rolling in. As I came around Little Cobb I noticed that the waves were breaking all across the front of the island. I had to deviate from my GPS track and sail out into the mouth of the inlet. The time of year can play a big difference. The only people around for miles was a waterman’s boat on the marsh. Once I turned toward Cobb Island I was running with the wind and it was getting close to low tide. I ran the slot with 4’ of water under the boat at the shallowest point. Once past the tip of Cobb things settled out quickly. Current was still running out strong so I looped toward the beach.
The Sand Shoal Cast Guard Station is a fragment of what it was 10 years ago. There use to be a large building that is gone now. I heard someone moved it to make a Restaurant out of it. The beaches are always loaded with sea shells. For some reason this time the shells were not that good. It appears that waves were washing over the island. There have been other times that I have collected a 5 gallon bucket of sand dollars. This time there were only five that were keepers.
I took the time to walk to the Ocean side of the island. The wide beach runs north as far as you can see. It is moments like these that I realize why I like coming here. This island is about as far from civilization as you can get in eastern Virginia. There are a few reminders like the plastic that washes up on the shore. In the end the wind and sand eventually reclaims it all.
A cold front was moving in. It was Halloween day and my wife wanted to be back in time to hand out candy to the neighborhood children. We ate our lunch and weighed the anchor. The wind was picking up and the breakers at the tip of Cobb were getting bigger. For the return trip I decided to cut behind Little Cobb. As we rounded the north end of Little Cobb I tried to cut between the fist little island and ran aground even with the board partially up. I never fully retract the center board. The board acts like a grounding gage, run aground, pull the board up and sail off into a new direction. I cleared the Loon Channel past the next island. The problem was that now I was over the marsh sand banks and the draft was 4 feet or less. By pulling up the centerboard I could not make way back toward the main channel. The wind was blowing directly from the south and it was pushing me further into the shallows. Running the outboard I was afraid that I would loose the plastic propeller if I struck an oyster bed. For some time things got a little hectic and we bounced off the bottom. You have no time to check the chart to see if you are in one of the smaller channels. My little GPS with S-Map does not have the detail required. The water looks all the same in all directions. I had my wife reading out the depth readings as I tried to claw my way back up wind.
The Red “4” marker and R”4A” Nun mark the south tip of a sand shoal. I could see the waves brake on the bank to my port side. I pinched as close as the boat would go to make the mark. It was a relief to be back in deep water. I wondered if I did any damage to the boat bouncing through the marsh. Heading back in the Sand Shoal Channel I reversed my GPS course. While passing a old abandoned chimney in the marsh grass a Waterman’s boat passed us with the day’s catch of Conch. A nice broad reach and a boost from the returning tide gave us a respectable 4-5 knots coming back in. The same white house acts as a target to aim for. Due to the low tide the last part of the channel was narrow and the banks were high. You realize why you need to stay in the channel.
Back in Oyster we pulled into the center ramp. I figured out why the locals all were going into the right ramp. I had a hard time guiding the boat on to the trailer with the angle of the wind and current. The boat wanted to turn under the walk ramp. My wife struck a conversation with the Watermen about the location of the best sand dollars. Their secret was Wreck Island, “buckets full”. She got so excited that she promptly told me that we have to go back next weekend. This is very unusual for her. As I am sitting here typing this blog it looks like the weather will not allow us to do that. This Oyster to Cobb Island trip might be the last big adventure for the Lucky Dog for 2009…